Inspection and acceptance of material and equipment, requiring certification by an independent and competent inspection organization, constitute a significant part of the activities of the S. A. I. Group’s Technical Division. S.A.I.’s Technical Inspections provide objective and reliable evidence as to the quality of purchased materials and equipment and their conformity with the procurement documentation. Technical inspection can be executed, as appropriate, at the mill, forge or foundry, at the plant, works or at the site. The extent, to which the inspection activities apply, depends upon the nature and the scope of the work to be performed and the importance and criticality of the equipment and services involved.
S.A.I. Technical Division may function in a specific and specialist manner or as a multidisciplinary team, as per client’s request, while at all times maintaining:
- An ability to identify, formulate, and solve complex engineering problems.
- An understanding of professional and engineering procedures.
- An ability to provide effective oral and written contract, procedures, and agreements.
- An appreciation for the global impact of metallurgical engineering profession/practice.
Mechanical inspections may cover items such as:
Pressure vessels, Columns, Heat exchangers, Reactors, Boilers, Furnaces, Incinerators, Storage tanks, Pipe systems, Steel structures, Tubes, Bridges, Cranes, Turbines, Compressors, Fiber reinforced vessels and Pipelines, Plastic pipelines, Diesel engines, Civil Construction Projects, Industrial Machinery, Automotive Engineering, Mechanical Designs.
Electrical inspections may cover items such as:
Rotating Electrical Machinery, Electrical Motors / Generators / Alternators, A. C. Machines / Synchronous or D. C Machines, Instrumental Panels and Instrument, Power plant electrical precision equipment.
Statistical Quality Control
Statistical quality control is based on statistical evaluation of control charts in order to constantly ensure the standard of quality required for finished products.
S. A. I. posses the most up-to-date database of IHS standards to cover every technical aspect of engineering procedures in most manufacturing environments.
Metallurgical Engineering & Inspection
In the field of Metallurgical Engineering, S.A.I. engineers:
- Apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering, prior and during inspection
- Design and conduct experiments and interpret data, for every phase of the project
- Design technically and financially sound metallurgical processes, equipment or materials in a manner that reflect a convenient method of engineering and standards
- Inspect structure-property-processing relationships in metallic materials, requested for inspection
- Provide technical solutions for contemporary issues arising in metallurgical engineering
- Use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for metallurgical engineering practice during project inspection
Welding Engineering & Inspection
S.A.I. inspectors look for Non-Destructive Test (NDT) methods that are used to find “indications” which have to be interpreted according to the inspection procedure for a particular job. “Indications” is inspection language for possible defects. These discontinuities (a fancier name for indications) have to be evaluated with reference to the acceptance criteria for a particular job. After comparison to the criteria they are considered as acceptable or rejected. Certain Non-Destructive Inspection (NDI) methods require special training, written and practical examinations and accumulation of experience.
Visual Inspection (V T)
The importance of visual inspection is often over-looked. A visual test (VT) will provide a wealth of information about a weld. Many weld defects such as porosity, cracks, incomplete fusion, inclusions, overlap, edge melt, and incomplete penetration can be observed with just a simple visual exam. A weld that passes a visual exam has a much higher probability of passing further Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods.
X-Rays (R T)
Radiographic weld inspection is performed by pointing a radiographic source (an x-ray tube or a radioactive isotope) to the part of the weld to be inspected and by exposing for a predetermined time a radiographic film to the radiation on the opposite side of the source tip or tube. The resulting film contains information on the internal features of the weld. Variations in film density allow the film interpreter to accept or reject the weld based on comparison to specific hole or wire sizes in or on a pentameter. These hole or wire sizes represent the largest acceptable defect size in a weld. Any indication that is larger than the acceptable wire or hole size is cause for rejection. All the relevant parameters including accept or reject are then recorded on an X-Ray Technique Sheet. The technique sheet and the processed film are usually turned over to the customer at the completion of the job.
Ultrasonic (U T)
Ultrasonic weld inspection is based on the fact that high frequency sound waves out of the range of human hearing can propagate in different materials, and be reflected by internal interfaces and opposite wall surfaces. These waves are generated by piezoelectric transducers of different sizes and frequencies which transform electrical vibrations into mechanical vibrations and vice-versa. These transducers are selected to match the thickness, type, temperature, and configuration of the material to be tested. Signal reflections are evaluated on a computer screen, and by making reference to standard reflectors (normally flat bottom holes carefully machined on specimens of the same material) of given shape and size, the qualified inspector can conclude that if an echo is present where it should not be and if its reflection is larger than that of comparison, then there is an indication that must be evaluated. Additional techniques may be required to determine acceptance or rejection. Ultrasonic testing is capable of detecting thin interfaces normal to the line of propagation of the wave (that X-Rays cannot detect) so that both testing methods complement each other. Ultrasonic testing is becoming one of the most widely used methods of nondestructive testing. Its primary purpose is to detect and characterize internal discontinuities. UT can also measure thickness, detect surface discontinuities, and define bond characteristics
Eddy Current Testing (E T)
Eddy current testing is a rapid and accurate technique used to detect discontinuities in tubing, heat exchangers, condensers, wires, plates, etc. Eddy current testing is also performed for alloy separation and for the determination of treatment conditions. The location of repair welds, girth welds and seam welds may also be detected on ground machined surfaces
Liquid Penetrant (P T)
Liquid Penetrant weld inspection is a sensitive method of detecting and locating discontinuities that are clear and open to the surface. A penetrating liquid dye is applied to the cleaned surface. This dye will seep into surface discontinuities. After a certain amount of time (dwell time), the excess penetrant dye is removed. A developer is then applied that acts like a blotter and draws the remaining penetrant out of the discontinuity. Liquid Penetrant inspection is used for both magnetic and non magnetic materials like aluminum, stainless steel, magnesium, titanium, bronze etc. and will detect extremely small cracks. There are three different types of penetrant used with both visible and flourescent methods. These are classified by how they are removed from the test surface: solvent removable, water washable, and post-emulsifiable. The solvent removable types are most common and highly portable making them ideal for “on site” inspections
Radiographic Examination (RE)
Radiographic examinations are performed to detect and evaluate internal defects and structural variations, including cracks, lack of fusion, incomplete penetration, porosity and inclusions. These tests are performed with Iridium 192, Cobalt isotopes, or low-voltage x-ray. Several dark room trailers are available for on-site development of radiographs
Leak testing for weld inspection is done on containers and piping systems built to hold a liquid or a gas. The tank or piping system is usually pressurized above its design operating pressure and held at that pressure for a specific amount of time. The usual test mediums are air, gas (usually nitrogen), or water. These tests are performed mostly on new construction and are part of the ASME code.
Corrosion Engineering & Inspection
S.A.I. Corrosion Inspections include the following activities:
- Corrosion monitoring/testing
- Surface analysis methods
- Stress corrosion cracking, fatigue and degradation
- Atmospheric, high-temperature, marine, underground corrosion
- Cathodic and Anodic protection
- Corrosion inhibitors
- Protective coatings and surface treatment
- Corrosion-resistant materials
- Electrochemical corrosion measurements
- Case studies and field experience
- Specification of materials
- Analysis of corrosion failures
- Corrosion measurement and inspection
- Analysis of Cathodic Protection
- Development of inspection techniques.
- Failure analysis and assessment
- Material specification and evaluation
S.A.I. Group has extensive experience in carrying out Food and Agricultural inspection. These include capabilities for inspection of Cereals including Wheat, Barley, Corn, Rice and Oil seeds such as Soybean, Sunflower, Colza, Rapeseed, other agricultural products such as Alfalfa, Soy Cake, and Livestock and Fish feedstuff in compliance with the standards and methods approvable by Commercial Societies such as GAFTA and FOSFA.
S.A.I. Group carries out qualitative and quantitative inspections including Weight Estimation Draft Survey; Supervision of Loading and Unloading Commodities, Inspection of Ship Warehouses; Determination of Damage to Goods and Sampling and taking Control Samples and Analysis Samples. In summary, we provide comprehensive and coordinated services in relation to:
- Inspection of Oil seed and Animal fats and Fish and Fertilizers and Pesticide.
- Supervision on Loading, Unloading, Sampling according to National and International Standards.
- Dispatching drawn Samples to accredited Labs.
- Determination of Weight on the basis of Ullage Survey on Shore Ship tanks or Draft Survey on Vessels.
All S.A.I. Group services in relation to the Food and Agricultural sector are coordinated by and under the supervision of S.A.I. Group’s International Coordination Office located in France. From our Co-ordination office in France we maintain communication with countries from which the products are exported, such as France, Brazil, Canada, Russia, Ukraine, and South Africa.
S.A.I. also Performs Inspection Prior To Transmission (Export) For Quantitative Inspection, Supervision of Loading and Discharging of Trucks, Containers, Wagons, Vessels, as well as Tankers.
S.A.I. Group’s Certificates and Certification Methods
Inspection Certificate (IC)
This type of Certificate is a document that may be called for under “Letter of Credit” (LC) or “Proforma Invoice” (PI), issued by independent inspection agency under PSI Program. It verifies Quality, Quantity, & Packing methods and standards as well as specification of the goods as per Proforma Invoice.
CERTIFICATE OF INSPECTION OR C.O.I. CERTIFICATE
Is a Certificate which requires Verification of Conformity of the goods to an internationally known product standard (VOC) for specific commodities enforced by a country’s regulatory and standards organizations.
S.A.I. Inspection Capabilities
The S.A.I. Group has developed specialist knowledge and skills in a wide range of market and industrial sectors and products. The following list indicates the S.A.I. Group’s breadth of inspection capabilities:
- Agriculture Food Stuff, Fertilizers, Animal Feeds, Pesticides etc…
- Control and inspection of the quality and conformity of good
- Quality Control Weighing, Checking, Tallying, Draft survey
- Conditioning Control Stacks, Cardboard boxes, Tins, Barrels, Containers
- Control of transport hygiene Wagons, Ships, Barrels, and Containers
- Supervision of treatments (Fumigation—Insect Control)
- Assistance and Expertise in case of disputes
- Cereals and Oleaginous products Wheat, Durum wheat, Corn, Fodder and brewing barley,
- Soya, Sunflower, Linseed, Olives, Groundnut, Sesame, Rice, Palm oil etc…
- Tins and Frozen Products Corned beef, Sauces, Tinned Vegetables and Fish, Meat, Poultry and Sea food frozen products
- Food Stuffs Malt, Wheat flour, Semolina, White and Brown sugar, Glucose, Cocoa and
- Coffee, Powdered milk, MGLA, Butter, Cheese, Spices etc…
- Animal Feeds Cattle cakes, Premix, Meat and Fish meal, Vitamin Concentrates, Molasses etc…
- Fertilizers, Solid and Liquid Chemical Fertilizers, Fungicides, Insecticides, Herbicides and etc…
- Textiles, Leather, Wood and their By-products, Raw Material and Semi-Finished products
Technical Inspections & Certification
S.A.I. Group’s Technical Inspections can take many different forms depending on the subject to be inspected. Technical inspections could be for industrial projects, or be specific to a product in a finished form, or a product during manufacturing. These inspections could be carried out in any field including Electrical, Electronics, Mechanical, Environmental, Chemical, Structural, Painting, Dynamics, Statics, Hydraulics, Welding, Pipelines, Coating, etc.
S.A.I. reviews client’s Purchase Orders, Scope of Inspection, Drawings, and any other industrially related documents upon receipt of an assignment to ensure that S.A.I. field personnel are provided with the necessary paperwork prior to inspection activity taking place.
S.A.I. then manages the process by which Suppliers and Vendors are subjected to inspections which ensure correct production techniques are implemented and the material used during manufacturing are correct in accordance to clients’ standards requests. Standards are illustrated by Approved Drawings, and pre-determined Codes. As necessary and specified, S.A.I. arranges for all the tests and laboratory investigations and certifications that may be required during the whole process.
S.A.I. Technical Inspections cover different investigative parameters such as:
Ultrasonic, Radiographic, Eddy current, Magnetic particle, Liquid penetration examination, Hydrostatic, Pneumatic pressure testing, Wall thickness measurement, Positive Material Identification (PMI), Material analysis, Physical and Mechanical Testing, and Electrical test for specific jobs. In this respect other activities may also be required, such as:
- Witnessing of Destructive or Non-Destructive testing on specific materials or Equipment, to ensure the requirements are met.
- Reviewing of welding procedure specifications and welding operators’ qualification to ensure Code Compliance and the meet with your requirements.
- Inspection of specific sub-assemblies, and finished items for Appearance, Workmanship, Dimensions, Surface condition and Operability.
- Witnessing of any required testing, to ensure that the finished items comply with approved procedures and specifications.
Checking of all final preparations for dispatch that includes:
– Technical expertise extend to the fields of Cleaning, Oiling, Coating, Rust-proofing,
– Packing, Marking and Packing of equipment to ensure that the equipment and components
are properly prepared in accordance with client requirements